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Buckland H. M., Eychenne Rowan Julia, Rust A. C., Cashman K. V. (2018). Relating the physical properties of volcanic rocks to the characteristics of ash generated by experimental abrasion. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 349, 335-350. ISSN 0377-0273

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Lien direct chez l'éditeur doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2017.11.017

Titre
Relating the physical properties of volcanic rocks to the characteristics of ash generated by experimental abrasion
Année de publication2018
Type de documentArticle référencé dans le Web of Science WOS:000424067500023
AuteursBuckland H. M., Eychenne Rowan Julia, Rust A. C., Cashman K. V.
SourceJournal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 2018, 349, p. 335-350. ISSN 0377-0273
RésuméInteractions between clasts in pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) generate volcanic ash that can be dispersed to the atmosphere in co-PDC plumes, and due to its small size, is far-travelled. We designed a series of experiments to determine the effects of pyroclast vesicularity and crystal content on the efficiency and type of ash generated by abrasion. Two different pyroclastic materials were used: (1) basaltic-andesite pyroclasts from Fuego volcano (Guatemala) with similar to 26-46% vesicularity and high groundmass crystallinity and (2) tephri-phonolite Avellino pumice (Vesuvius, Italy) with similar to 55-75% vesicularity and low groundmass crystallinity. When milled, both clast types produced bimodal grain size distributions with fine ash modes between 4 and 5 phi (32-63 pm). Although the vesicular Avellino pumice typically generated more ash than the denser Fuego pyroclasts, the ash-generating potential of a single pyroclast was independent of density, and instead governed by heterogeneous crystal and vesicle textures. One consequence of these heterogeneities was to cause the vesicular Avellino clasts to split in addition to abrading, which further enhanced abrasion efficiency. The matrix characteristics also affected ash shape and componentry, which will influence the elutriation and transport properties of ash in the atmosphere. The experimental abrasion successfully replicated some of the characteristics of natural co-PDC ash samples, as shown by similarities in the Adherence Factor, which measures the proportion of attached matrix on phenocrysts, of both the experimentally generated ash and natural co-PDC ash samples. Our results support previous studies, which have shown that abrasion is an effective mechanism for generating fine ash that is similar in size (similar to 5 phi; 30 pm) to that found in co-PDC deposits. We further show that both the abundance and nature (shape, density, components, size distribution) of those ash particles are strongly controlled by the matrix properties of the abraded pyroclasts.
Plan de classementGéophysique interne [066] ; Géologie et formations superficielles [064]
Descr. géo.GUATEMALA ; DE FUEGO VOLCAN ; ITALIE ; VESUVE
LocalisationFonds IRD [F B010072321]
Identifiant IRDfdi:010072321
Lien permanenthttp://www.documentation.ird.fr/hor/fdi:010072321

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