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Rebaudet S., Bulit G., Gaudart J., Michel E., Gazin Pierre, Evers C., Beaulieu S., Abedi A. A., Osei L., Barrais R., Pierre K., Moore S., Boncy J., Adrien P., Guillaume F. D., Beigbeder E., Piarroux R. (2019). The case-area targeted rapid response strategy to control cholera in Haiti : a four-year implementation study. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 13 (4), art. e0007263 [18p.] ISSN 1935-2735

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Lien direct chez l'éditeur doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0007263

En Libre Accès sur HAL https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02103482

Titre
The case-area targeted rapid response strategy to control cholera in Haiti : a four-year implementation study
Année de publication2019
Type de documentArticle référencé dans le Web of Science WOS:000466742100026
AuteursRebaudet S., Bulit G., Gaudart J., Michel E., Gazin Pierre, Evers C., Beaulieu S., Abedi A. A., Osei L., Barrais R., Pierre K., Moore S., Boncy J., Adrien P., Guillaume F. D., Beigbeder E., Piarroux R.
SourcePLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 2019, 13 (4), art. e0007263 [18p.] ISSN 1935-2735
RésuméBackground In October 2010, Haiti was struck by a large-scale cholera epidemic. The Haitian government, UNICEF and other international partners launched an unprecedented nationwide alert-response strategy in July 2013. Coordinated NGOs recruited local rapid response mobile teams to conduct case-area targeted interventions (CATIs), including education sessions, household decontamination by chlorine spraying, and distribution of chlorine tablets. An innovative red-orange-green alert system was also established to monitor the epidemic at the communal scale on a weekly basis. Our study aimed to describe and evaluate the exhaustiveness, intensity and quality of the CATIs in response to cholera alerts in Haiti between July 2013 and June 2017. Methodology/principal findings We analyzed the response to 7,856 weekly cholera alerts using routine surveillance data and severity criteria, which was based on the details of 31,306 notified CATIs. The odds of CATI response during the same week (exhaustiveness) and the number of complete CATIs in responded alerts (intensity and quality) were estimated using multivariate generalized linear mixed models and several covariates. CATIs were carried out significantly more often in response to red alerts (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) [95%-confidence interval, 95%-CI], 2.52 [2.22-2.87]) compared with orange alerts. Significantly more complete CATIs were carried out in response to red alerts compared with orange alerts (adjusted incidence ratio (aIR), 1.85 [1.73-1.99]). Over the course of the eight-semester study, we observed a significant improvement in the exhaustiveness (aOR, 1.43 [1.38-1.48] per semester) as well as the intensity and quality (aIR, 1.23 [1.2-1.25] per semester) of CATI responses, independently of funds available for the strategy. The odds of launching a CATI response significantly decreased with increased rainfall (aOR, 0.99 [0.97-1] per each accumulated cm). Response interventions were significantly heterogeneous between NGOs, communes and departments. Conclusions/significance The implementation of a nationwide case-area targeted rapid response strategy to control cholera in Haiti was feasible albeit with certain obstacles. Such feedback from the field and ongoing impact studies will be very informative for actors and international donors involved in cholera control and elimination in Haiti and in other affected countries. Author summary Cholera is a potentially deadly diarrheal disease caused by toxin-secreting strains of Vibrio cholerae. The bacterium can trigger severe epidemics in countries with limited access to potable water and sanitation. Hygiene promotion, proper sanitation and improved access to safe drinking water are essential to control cholera. However, very few reports have described and evaluated the implementation of such activities in the field. Since October 2010, Haiti has been affected by one of the most severe cholera epidemics of the past few decades. In this report, we describe and evaluate the implementation of the original nationwide case-area targeted interventions (CATIs) response strategy, which was launched in July 2013 after years of insufficient response coordination and diminishing efforts to control cholera outbreaks in affected communities. Rapid implementation of education sessions, household decontamination, soap distribution and water chlorination in affected communities proved challenging but possible, even in a mountainous and decentralized country such as Haiti with tens of thousands of suspected cholera cases per year. Evaluation of the impact of the CATI-based strategy on the cholera epidemic is underway. Together with other components of a multi-sectoral approach, this rapid response strategy appears to be critical to eventually eliminate cholera in Haiti.
Plan de classementSanté : généralités [050] ; Entomologie médicale / Parasitologie / Virologie [052]
Descr. géo.HAITI
LocalisationFonds IRD [F B010075681]
Identifiant IRDfdi:010075681
Lien permanenthttp://www.documentation.ird.fr/hor/fdi:010075681

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