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Kotti F., Dezileau L., Mahé Gil, Habaieb H., Benabdallah S., Bentkaya M., Calvez Roger, Dieulin Claudine. (2018). Impact of dams and climate on the evolution of the sediment loads to the sea by the Mejerda River (Golf of Tunis) using a paleo-hydrological approach. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 142, 226-233. ISSN 1464-343X

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Lien direct chez l'éditeur doi:10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2017.10.003

Titre
Impact of dams and climate on the evolution of the sediment loads to the sea by the Mejerda River (Golf of Tunis) using a paleo-hydrological approach
Année de publication2018
Type de documentArticle référencé dans le Web of Science WOS:000430521700017
AuteursKotti F., Dezileau L., Mahé Gil, Habaieb H., Benabdallah S., Bentkaya M., Calvez Roger, Dieulin Claudine.
SourceJournal of African Earth Sciences, 2018, 142, p. 226-233. ISSN 1464-343X
RésuméThe Mejerda River is the one of the major rivers in Tunisia and several studies dealt with the importance of this river in terms of ecology, geochemistry and sociology. However, the sedimentary contributions to the coastal zone from the Mejerda River were poorly observed, and we did not find any continuous monitoring. The main objective of this work is to assess the impact of reduction on sediment transport from the upper basins to the coastal area, after the construction of large dams which may have strong and long-lasting effects on coastal geomorphology and ecosystems. In this paper, a paleo-hydrological approach was applied through the study of sediment cores sampled in the low valley meander on alluvial terrace. We attempt to emphasize, through this approach, the reduction in sediment loads to the sea (Gulf of Tunis) due to the construction of dams on the Mejerda River and to changes in climate conditions. Three cores (C1, C3, C5) were sampled in the lower part of the Mejerda near the hydrometric station of Jdaida with different depths (0.9 m, 1.2 m and 3.0 m) and in different dates (2014-2015). Visible successions of sedimentary layers corresponding to the deposits of successive flood events were identified and the history of the sedimentary contributions to the Mejerda was reconstructed. The thickest layers of sedimentary deposits were related to the exceptional events. They are mainly concentrated on the lower part of the core and are predominantly composed of sands. Since the construction of the Sidi Salem dam in 1981, all of the cores C1, C3 and specially C5 presented mostly a succession of small layers of fine material (silt or clay) without any sand deposits in the downstream River bed. In C5, 18 individual slackwater flood units were identified. A strong decrease in the accumulation rate of sediment was observed based on the length of the flood units and the number of years between flood events. A lower sedimentation rate is observed between 1982 and 2015 of about 2.3 cm/ year, while it was much more important between 1963 and 1981 of about 4.75 cm/year, and around 10 cm/year between 1950 and 1962. The statistical study of precipitation indicated three climatic successive periods between 1951 and 2009 characterized as wet, dry and intermediate. Thus, the sediment rate was higher before 1974 reaching about 8.47 cm/year for the wet condition, of about 4 cm/year for the dry period between 1974 and 1989, and about 1.6 cm/year in the intermediate period afterward to 2009 that also witnessed the construction of the major dams.
Plan de classementHydrologie [062] ; Géologie et formations superficielles [064]
Descr. géo.TUNISIE ; MEJERDA COURS D'EAU ; TUNIS GOLFE
LocalisationFonds IRD [F B010072776]
Identifiant IRDfdi:010072776
Lien permanenthttp://www.documentation.ird.fr/hor/fdi:010072776

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